The Outlaws of the Marsh Chapter 1 Zhang the Divine Teacher Prays to Dispel a Plague

Chapter 1

Zhang the Divine Teacher Prays to Dispel a Plague

Marshal Hong Releases Demons by Mistake

After Five Dynasties' turmoil and strife,

The clouds dispersed and revealed the sky,

Refreshing rain brought old trees new life, Culture and learning once again were high.

Ordinary folk in the lanes wore silk,

Music drifted from mansions and towers,

Under the heavens all was serene,

Men dozed off at noon midst gay birds and flowers.

This eight-lined poem was written during the reign of Emperor Shen Zong of the Song Dynasty by a scholar named Shao Yaofu, also known as Master Kang Jie. From the end of the Tang and all through the Five Dynasties, times had been troubled. One short-lived dynasty had ruled after another. How true was the verse:

Zhu, Li, Shi, Liu, Guo founded Liang, Tang, Jin, Han and Zhou. Fifteen emperors fifty years in a row, Bringing hardship, tumult and woe.

In time, the way of Heaven took a new turn. At Jiamaying, Tai Zu, the Emperor of Military Virtue, was born. A red glow suffused the sky when this sage came into the world, and fragrance still filled the air the following morning. He was in fact the God of Thunder descended to earth. Brave and magnanimous, he was superior to any emperor who had ever lived.

With a staff as tall as himself he smote so hard that four hundred prefectures and districts acknowledged his sovereignty. He swept the land clean and pacified the Central Plains. Naming his empire the Great Song, he established his court at Bianliang. Tai Zu was the first of eighteen Song emperors and founder of a dynasty lasting four hundred years.

That is why Master Shao Yaofu said in his praise: The clouds dispersed and revealed the sky. For the people it was indeed like seeing the sun again.

At that time on Huashan, the West Sacred Mountain, lived a Taoist hermit named Chen Tuan. A virtuous man, he could foretell the future by the weather. One day as he was riding his donkey down the mountain towards the county town of Huayin he heard a traveler on the path say: "Emperor Chai Shi Zong has surrendered his throne to Marshal Zhao in the Eastern Capital."

Chen clapped his hands to his brow and laughed so delightedly that he fell off his donkey. Asked the reason for his joy, he said: "The empire will be firmly settled from now on. For this is in accord with the will of Heaven above, the laws of Earth below, and the hearts of men between."

Marshal Zhao accepted the abdication in 960 and established his regime. He ruled for seventeen years, and there was peace throughout the land. He was succeeded by his younger brother, Tai Zong, who ruled for twenty-two years. After Tai Zong came Zhen Zong, who was succeeded by Ren Zong.

Emperor Ren Zong was actually a re-incarnation of the Barefoot Immortal. When he came down and was born on earth he cried day and night without cease. The imperial court posted a proclamation, inviting any man who could cure him to come forward. Heaven was touched and sent the Great Star of White Gold in the guise of an old man. Announcing he could cure the prince's weeping, the old man took down the proclamation. The officer in charge conducted him to the palace, where the emperor directed that he be allowed to see Ren Zong in the inner apartments.

The old man went in, picked up the baby, and whispered eight words into his ear. At once the prince stopped crying. The old man disappeared in a puff of air without even revealing his name. What were the eight words? They were these: "Civil and military affairs, both have their stars."

The fact was that the Jade Emperor of Heaven had dispatched two stars from the Propitious Constellation to serve the future emperor. The civil affairs star became Bao Zheng, prefect of Kaifeng and a senior member of the Dragon Diagram Academy. The military affairs star became Di Qing, the great general who led an expedition against the Kingdom of Western Xia.

With the help of these two ministers, Ren Zong ruled as emperor for forty-two years, in the course of which he gave special names to nine periods of his reign. During the first nine years, or the Tian Sheng period, all went well. Grain harvests were large; the people were happy at their work; no one kept articles lost by others on the road; doors were left unlocked at night. That was the period of the "First Abundance."

From the beginning of the Ming Dao period to the third year of Huang You another nine years of prosperity followed. That was the period of "Second Abundance."

From the fourth year of Huang You to the second year of Jia You, nine years more, the fields continued to flourish. That was the period of the "Third Abundance."

These three nine-year periods, twenty-seven years in all, were known as the Era of Three Abundances. During that time the people enjoyed great happiness. Who could have foreseen that extreme joy would give birth to sorrow?

In the third year of the Jia You period a plague struck the land. From the south to the two capitals, not a single hamlet escaped the contagion. The imperial court was snowed under with petitions for relief from every district and prefecture.

More than half the soldiers and residents in and around the Eastern Capital died. Bao Zheng, counsellor and prefect of Kaifeng, published the officially approved prescriptions and spent his own money on medicines in an attempt to save the people. But to no avail. The plague grew worse. All the high civil and military officials conferred. The they gathered in the Hall of the Water Clock and waited for daybreak, when court would be held, so that they could appeal to the emperor.

That day, the third day of the third month of the third year of the Jia You period, at the third interval of the fifth watch Emperor Ren Zong mounted his throne in the imperial palace. After the officials had made their obeisances, the chief of ceremonies cried: "If anyone has a petition, let him come forward. If there are none, this court will adjourn."

Zhao Zhe, the Premier, and Wen Yanbo, his deputy, advanced and said: "The plague is raging unabated in the capital. Victims among the soldiers and the people are many. We hope Your Majesty, in a forgiving and benevolent spirit, will reduce prison sentences and cut taxes, and pray to Heaven that the people be relived of this affliction."

The emperor at once ordered the Hanlin Academy to draw an edict proclaiming a general amnesty for all prisoners and canceling all taxes. He also directed that every temple and monastery in the capital offer prayers for a termination of the disaster.

But the plague only became worse. The emperor was very disturbed and summoned his officials for a conference. A prominent minister stepped forth and asked to be heard ahead of turn. The emperor saw that it was Fan Zhongyan, his Deputy Premier.

Fan kowtowed, then rose and said: "The plague is decimating our soldiers and citizenry. No one is safe. In my humble opinion if this pestilence is to be ended Your Majesty should summon the Divine Teacher of the Taoists, who comes from a papal line dating back to Han times. Let him travel day and night and rush here to the capital and conduct a great prayer service in the imperial park. In this way the people will be saved."

Emperor Ren Zong approved Fan's proposal. He directed the scholars of the Hanlin Academy to draw up an edict, which he signed personally, and issued a bunch of royal incense sticks. He ordered that Marshal Hong Xin go as his emissary to the Dragon and Tiger Mountain in Xinzhou Prefecture of Jiangxi Province and fetch Zhang the Divine Teacher. While incense burned in the imperial hall, the emperor himself placed the edict in Marshal Hong's hands and told him to set out immediately.

Hong accepted the royal edict and took leave of the emperor. With the edict in a bag on his back and the incense sticks in a golden box, he mounted his horse and left the Eastern Capital, leading a column of several score men. They headed directly for Guixi, a county town in Xinzhou Prefecture.

After a number of days they arrived. Officials, high and low, greeted Marshal Hong. They sent word to the abbot and other Taoists in the Temple of Supreme Purity on the Dragon and Tiger Mountain to get ready to receive the imperial edict.

The next day the officials accompanied Marshal Hong to the foot of the mountain. A procession of Taoists, beating drums and bells, playing saintly music, bearing incense and candles, banners and canopies, came down to receive the imperial envoy. They escorted him to the temple, where he dismounted. All of the Taoists, from the abbot to the lowliest novice, gathered round and led him to the Hall of Three Purities. They asked him to place the royal edict on an altar.

"Where is the Divine Teacher?" Marshal Hong inquired of the abbot.

"You must understand, Marshal," replied the abbot, "our Teacher is known as 'Pure Serenity'. He is of a very exalted nature and cannot be bothered with such mundane matters as welcoming and seeing off visitors. He has built a thatched hut on the top of the mountain, and there he meditates and cultivates his spirit."

"But I have an imperial edict. How can I find him?"

"Leave the edict here in this hall. None of us will dare to unroll it. Please come into the abbey for some tea. We can talk things over there."

Marshal Hong did as the abbot suggested. When he had seated himself amid his hosts in the abbey, tea and meatless dishes of many varieties were served. After the meal, the marshal said to the abbot: "You say the Divine Teacher is in a thatched hut on the mountain top. Why not ask him to come down and receive the royal edict?"

"He's up there, all right, keeping himself aloof from the world. But our Divine Teacher has an unusual knowledge of the Way. He can ride the clouds and mists. Nobody knows exactly where he is. We ordinary Taoists are rarely able to see him. How can we ask him to come down?"

"I must meet him. A plague is raging in the capital and the emperor has sent me with an imperial edict and royal incense to invite him to conduct a great prayer service that will dispel the pestilence and save the people. What can I do?"

"You must first prove your piety. Eat no meat, bathe and change into simple cotton garments. With the edict on your back, carry burning incense and travel on foot alone to the summit. There, kowtow, and cry your invitation aloud. Then perhaps you'll be able to meet the Divine Teacher. But if you're not sincere your trip will be in vain. You'll never see him."

"I've eaten nothing but vegetables since I left the capital. Doesn't that show I'm sincere? I shall do as you say. I'll start up the mountain the first thing in the morning."

Everyone retired for the night.

At the fifth watch the following morning the Taoists prepared scented water and a vegetarian meal for the marshal. After bathing in the scented water he dressed in new cotton garments and straw sandals, ate the meatless breakfast, wrapped the imperial edict in a piece of yellow silk and tied it on his back. In a silver censer he carried the smoking incense. Many Taoists escorted him to the mountain behind the temple and pointed out the path.

"You must never retreat, if you are to save the people, Marshal," said the abbot. "Just push on piously."

Bidding the Taoists farewell and calling on the Highest Deity for aid, Marshal Hong started up the mountain, alone. He climbed the twisting overgrown path for two or three li, crossing a number of peaks. Soon his feet ached and his legs grew weary. He felt he couldn't move another step. Though he didn't say it aloud, he grumbled to himself:

"An important government official like me. When I'm in the capital I lie on double mattresses and dine on banquet dishes. Even then I don't have much energy. What am I doing here in straw sandals, climbing this mountain path? Who knows where that Divine Teacher is anyhow? Why should I have to endure these torments?"

He was panting hard, his shoulders heaving, before he had gone another fifty paces. A strong wind blew through the hollow. When it had passed, a roar thundered from behind the pines and out leaped a huge tiger, with bulging eyes, a white forehead and striped fur.


cried the marshal, toppling over backwards in terror.

The tiger, its eyes fixed upon him, circled left and right. Then it roared again and bounded off down the rear slope. Marshal Hong lay beneath a tree, his teeth chattering, his heart clanging like fifteen buckets in a single well. Paralyzed as if suffering a stroke, his legs limper than a defeated cock's, he could only moan.

Not until the tiger had been gone the time it takes to drink a cup of tea was the marshal able to crawl to his feet. He picked up the censer, re-lit the royal incense and continued up the mountain in search of the Divine Teacher.

The marshal climbed another forty or fifty paces. He sighed. "If the emperor hadn't set a time limit on my mission, I wouldn't have had to suffer such a fright."

Before he finished speaking a strong wind blasted him with foul air. Marshal Hong heard a loud hissing. A big snake, thick as a bucket and dappled with snow-white spots, wriggled out of a grove of bamboo and vines on the mountainside.

"I'm dead man!" exclaimed the marshal. He fell on his back beside a spiral-shaped rock, dropping his censer.

The great snake moved rapidly towards the rock, then twisted itself into coils, its eyes shooting golden sparks. It opened its large mouth, flickering its tongue, and breathed poisonous fumes in the marshal's face.

So horrified was Marshal Hong that his three souls drifted and his seven spirits departed. The serpent looked at him, then slithered down the mountain and was quickly lost to sight. Only then was the marshal able to haul himself erect.

"Lucky," he muttered. "That snake nearly scared me to death!" There were goose pimples all over his body. He cursed the abbot: "What rudeness, playing tricks on me and frightening me so. If I don't find the Divine Teacher on the summit I'll settle with that abbot when I get down!"

Again he picked up the silver incense burner, straightened his clothes, settled the edict on his back, and adjusted his hat. About to go on, he heard the notes of a flute coming softly from behind the pines. Gradually, the melody drew nearer. A yellow ox plodded over the rise. A boy novice, seated on its back, was smiling as he played a metal flute.

"Where are you from?" called the marshal. "Do you know who I am?"

The boy merely continued playing. Marshal Hong shouted the question several times. The boy laughed and pointed at him with his flute.

"You've come looking for the Divine Teacher, haven't you?" he said.

The marshal was astounded. "You're just a cowherd. How do you know?"

Smiling, the boy replied: "When I was serving the Divine Teacher in his thatched hut this morning he said: 'The emperor has sent a Marshal Hong here with royal incense and an imperial edict for me to go to the Eastern Capital and conduct a great prayer service that will drive away the plague. I shall mount a crane and ride the clouds and go there today. He must have left by now. He's not in the hut. There's no point in your climbing any higher. The mountain is full of venomous snakes and savage beasts. They're liable to kill you."

"Are you telling me the truth?" the marshal demanded.

The novice only laughed, but didn't reply. He resumed playing his flute and rode off around the bend.

"How could that child know so much?" the marshal wondered. "The Divine Teacher must have told him. That's it." He hesitated. "I've had those terrible frights and nearly lost my life. Maybe I'd better go back."

Carrying the censer he returned hastily down the same path he had come. The Taoists received him and invited him to be seated in the abbey.

"Did you meet the Divine Teacher?" the abbot asked.

"I'm a high official of the imperial court. How could you send me up a mountain path and make me suffer such torments? I was nearly killed. First, halfway up, a big tiger with bulging eyes and a white forehead jumped out and scared the wits out of me. Then, before I had passed another gap, a great snake with snow-white spots wriggled from a thicket of bamboo and vines, wrapped itself in coils and blocked my path. If I weren't lucky, I'd never get back to the capital alive. It's all the fault of you Taoists. Making sport of me!"

"Would we humble Taoists dare show disrespect to a high minister?" said the abbot. "The Divine Teacher was testing your piety. Although there are snakes and tigers on our mountain, they don't hurt people."

"By then I could hardly walk. Just as I was about to continue up the slope, a novice, sitting on a yellow ox and playing a metal flute, came riding over the rise. I asked him: 'Where are you from? Do you know me?' He answered: 'I know all about you.' He said the Divine Teacher told him he would mount a crane and ride the clouds to the Eastern Capital this morning. That's why I've returned."

"Too bad," cried the abbot. "Marshal, you missed your chance. That boy was the Divine Teacher."

"A rustic-looking fellow like that?"

"The Divine Teacher of this generation is very unusual. Although young in years, he has a remarkable command of the Way. He's not an ordinary mortal. He can appear in any guise he wishes. People call him the Master of the Way."

"I saw him and didn't recognize him! What a shame."

"Never mind, Marshal. Since the Divine Teacher said he was going, by the time you return to the capital, the great prayer service will be successfully finished."

On hearing this, the marshal felt better. The abbot ordered that a banquet be prepared for him. At the abbot's suggestion, the imperial edict was placed in a casket for royal documents, to be retained permanently in the temple; the royal incense was burned in the Hall of Three Purities. A big feast of meatless dishes was spread in the abbey. The diners ate and drank until dark. Then all retired.

After breakfast the next morning, the abbot, priests and abbey superintendents invited the marshal out for a sight-seeing stroll. He accepted with pleasure. Led by two novices they left the abbey, followed by a large entourage. They walked around the temple grounds, enjoying the beautiful scenery.

In the Hall of Three Purities the marshal was shown objects precious beyond words. He visited also the Nine Heavens Hall, the Propitious Star Hall, and the North Pole Hall, beside a covered walk on the left side of the grounds. Along another such walk on the right he inspected the Great Monad Hall, the Three Officials Hall and the Hall for Dispelling Evil.

He was then escorted to the grounds in the rear of the right walk. There he observed a building with walls as red as peppers, and vermilion-colored lattice-work on its two front windows. A lock as thick as a man's arm clamped together its double doors. A dozen strips of paper, pasted across the crack where the doors met, were stamped with innumerable red seals. Beneath the front eaves was a red plaque inscribed with letters of gold, reading: "Suppression of Demons Hall."

"What is this place?" asked the marshal.

"A hall where an earlier Divine Teacher imprisoned some demons," replied the abbot.

"Why are there so? many seals on the doors?"

"A Divine Teacher known as the Royal Master of the Way locked the demons in there in Tang times. Each subsequent Divine Teacher added his own seal, prohibiting any successor from opening the doors. If those demons escaped, it would be awful. Nine generations of Divine Teachers have ruled since then, and they all vowed to keep the hall closed. The lock has been filled with melted bronze. Who knows what's in there? I've been in charge of this temple for thirty years, but I only know what I've been told."

Marshal Hong was surprised. "I certainly would like to see a demon," he thought. To the abbot he said: "Open the doors. I want to see what a demon looks like."

"I cannot, Marshal," the abbot replied. "The early generation Divine Teacher has forbidden it. No one today would dare."

The marshal laughed. "Nonsense. The story is an invention to delude people. You've deliberately prepared this place so that you can say you've got demons imprisoned as proof of the power of your Taoist magic. I've read many books, but none of them says anything about how to lock up demons. Spirits inhabit only the Nether Regions. I don't believe you've got any demons in there. Open up and let me have a look."

"This hall mustn't be opened," the abbot pleaded. "It would mean disaster." Marshal Hong grew angry. He pointed his finger at the Taoists and roared: "If you don't do as I say I'll report to the court that you prevented me from delivering the imperial edict and refused to let me see the Divine Teacher. I'll tell how you rigged up this hall and invented the story that you've got demons inside in order to fool the public. I'll have your religious orders cancelled and have you all tattooed with the mark of the criminal and exiled to a wild and distant region!"

The abbot feared the influence of Marshal Hong. He had no choice but to order some blacksmith priests to remove the scales and break the lock. Then the doors were pushed open and everyone entered the hall. It was pitch dark. The marshal called for a dozen torches. When these were brought he saw that the hall was empty except for a stone tablet in the center. About six feet high, it was based on a stone tortoise which was sunk halfway into the damp earthen floor. Hong moved the torches closer to the tablet. The front was inscribed with dragon and phoenix scripts and mystic signs and symbols which no one could understand. Then he looked at the back. There, written large, were four words: "Open when Hong comes."

The marshal was delighted. "You tried to stop me," he said to the abbot. "Yet my name was written here hundreds of years ago. 'Open when Hong comes.' It's perfectly plain. What's wrong if I have a look? I believe the demons are right here beneath this stone. Get a few more men with mattocks and shovels and dig it out."

The abbot was horrified. "We can't do that, Marshal. Something terrible may happen. It's not safe!"

"What do you know, anyway?" the marshal shouted angrily. "It says clearly on the tablet it can be removed when I come. How dare you stop me? Get me those men."

Four or five times the abbot pleaded: "No good will come of it." But the marshal wouldn't listen. The workmen were summoned. After long and strenuous effort they pushed over the tablet and pried the stone tortoise out of the ground.

Then they started shovelling. At four feet they came upon a big stone slab some ten feet square. Marshal Hong directed them to dig it out. "You mustn't," begged the abbot, but the marshal ignored him. When the men had removed the slab, a pit one hundred thousand feet deep was revealed. A great ripping sound was heard, and a black cloud shot out of the pit. It tore through half a corner of the roof and zoomed into the sky, where it split  

into more than a hundred golden rays which shimmered in every direction.

Everyone shouted in fright and threw down their tools. They dashed out of the hall, bowling people over left and right. Marshal Hong goggled and gaped helplessly. His face was the color of earth. He hurried out to the porch, where the abbot was lamenting.

"Who are those demons who escaped?" Hong asked. "Oh, Marshal, you didn't know," groaned the abbot. "In this hall the Master of the Way left a written warning. It said: 'Thirty-six stars of Heavenly spirits and seventy-two stars of Earthly Fiends, a total of one hundred and eight demons, are imprisoned here, held down by a stone tablet inscribed with their names, written in a mystic script that resembles dragons and phoenixes. If they are released on earth they will cause no end of trouble.' Now you've let them out. What are we going to do?"

The marshal trembled and broke into a cold sweat. He hastily collected his luggage, marched down the mountain with his men and headed for the capital. The abbot and the Taoists saw them off, then returned to the temple, where they repaired the roof and re-erected the stone tablet. Of them we'll say no more.

During the return trip, afraid that the emperor would reproach him, the marshal instructed his men to say nothing about the escape of the demons. The march was uneventful. Travelling day and night, they soon reached Bianliang, the Eastern Capital. On entering the city they were told: "The Divine Teacher held a great prayer service in the Imperial Park for seven days and seven nights and distributed many charms. Now the sick are cured and the plague is completely gone. The Divine Teacher has taken leave of the emperor and returned to the Dragon and Tiger Mountain, astride a crane and riding the clouds."

At early court the following morning, Marshal Hong reported to the emperor.

"The Divine Teacher mounted a crane and rode the clouds, so he arrived first," said Hong. "We had to march every stage of the road. That's why we didn't get here till now."

The emperor approved of his report. He rewarded the marshal and ordered him to resume his post. We'll say no more of this.

Emperor Ren Zong ruled for forty-two years and died without leaving a son. The throne passed to the son of Prince Yun Rang of Puan. A grandson of Tai Zong, he is known by his posthumous title of Ying Zong. After four years of rule, he abdicated in favor of his son, Shen Zong, who reigned for eighteen years and then gave the throne to his son Zhe Zong. During this entire period there was peace throughout the land and no disturbances.

But not so fast. If it were true that nothing happened, what would we have to tell in this book? Reader, don't be alarmed, for in what follows thirty-six stars of Heavenly Spirits come to earth and seventy-two stars of Earthly Fiends appear among men. Valiants hide in strongholds, heroes gather in the marshes.

Why? Read our next chapter if you would know.


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